Pets

Maternal Diet a-Linolenic Acid during Gestation and Lactation Does Not Increase Docosahexaenoic Acid in Canine Milk

Source: John E. Bauer, Kimberly M. Heinemann, Karen E. Bigley, George E. Lees, and Mark K. Waldron Both (n-3) and (n-6) classes of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA),4 which have >20 carbon atoms and >2 double bonds, are important in perinatal development. Brain and retinal functions depend on the (n-3) polyunsaturate, docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)] […]

Docosahexaenoic Acid Accumulates in Plasma of Canine Puppies Raised on a-Linolenic Acid–Rich Milk during Suckling but Not When Fed a-Linolenic Acid–Rich Diets after Weaning

Source: John E. Bauer, Kimberly M. Heinemann, George E. Lees, and Mark K. Waldron Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)5 is important for proper neurological development of humans and animals (1). In growing animals, 4 ways exist to meet the DHA requirement of neural tissues: uptake of DHA directly from dietary sources; desaturation and elongation of ALA within […]

The Role of Fatty Acids in Neurodevelopment

Source: Nestlé Purina Pet Institute Research Report Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are important in perinatal development. Neural tissues in the brain and retina contain high concentrations of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4 n-6), and the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3). During the last trimester of gestation, these […]

Retinal Functions of Young Dogs Are Improved and Maternal Plasma Phospholipids Are Altered with Diets Containing Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids during Gestation, Lactation, and after Weaning

Source: John E. Bauer, Kimberly M. Heinemann, George E. Lees, and Mark K. Waldron In humans and animals, brain and retinal functions are dependent on the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n-3)5 during in utero development and postnatal life. The period of maximum brain growth in humans begins in the third trimester […]

Maternal Fish Oil Diet During Gestation and Lactation Improves Canine Puppy Retinal Function and Electroretinographic Response

Source: K. Heinemann, M. Waldron, K. Bigley, and J. Bauer Proper neural and retinal development of mammalian species depends on the presence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) during fetal development and the perinatal period. In canines, neural development occurs both during the perinatal period both before and after birth. This study was designed to […]

Maternal Dietary Fatty Acids Modify Canine Puppy Plasma Lipoprotein Distributions during the Suckling Period

Source: A. Shanna Wright, John E. Bauer, Karen E. Bigley, George E. Lees, and Mark K. Waldron Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)4 are important for neonatal growth and development in all mammalian species studied to date. Normal fetal development requires the 18-carbon essential fatty acids as well as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with 20- and […]

Long-Chain (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids are More Efficient than Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Improving Electroretinogram Responses of Puppies Exposed during Gestation, Lactation, and Weaning

Source: KM Heinemann, MK Waldron, KE Bigley, GE Lees, and JE Bauer Long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) are essential for proper neural and retinal development in many mammalian species. We investigated puppies born to dogs fed diets containing varying amounts of vegetable and marine (n-3) fatty acids during gestation/lactation. The fatty acid compositions of dogs’ milk and […]

Effects of Supplementation with a Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Salmon Oil on Total Plasma and Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in the Cat

Source: Charles R. Filburn, PhD and David Griffin, MS, DVM Cats lack an adequate liver capacity to synthesize the longer-chain omega (n-6 and n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) that, upon release into the blood, are incorporated into membrane phospholipids in many tissues and serve essential structural and signaling functions. The necessity and importance of a […]

Effect of Dietary Fish Oil on Puppy Trainability

Source: R.L. Kelley, A.J. Lepine, J.R. Burr, M. Shyan-Norwalt, and G.A. Reinhart To determine the effect of maternal and post-weaning dietary fish oil on trainability and DHA status in Beagle puppies. Methods: Twenty-eight (28) Beagle bitches (parity 2-3) were randomly assigned to 3 treatment (TRT) diets at breeding and maintained on those diets through weaning. […]

Docosahexaenoic acid and neurologic development in animals

Source: KM Heinemann Analysis of data in puppies has revealed that feeding diets enriched in DHA to the dams during gestation and lactation and after weaning results in the accumulation of DHA in plasma lipids, which is associated with improvements in neurologic development, as indicated by the ERG response. Additional evidence has also emerged that […]

Use and Misuse of Dietary Fatty Acids for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

Source: Michel De Lorgeril and Patricia Salen In the recent years, the health effects of fish (and n-3 fatty acids) have attracted considerable scientific interest. The present consensus is that the cardioprotection of very long chain n-3 fatty acids (also called EPA and DHA) at the low dosage used in recent secondary prevention trials primarily […]

The Potential for Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Domestic Animals

Source: JE Bauer The metabolism and clinical potential for dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modifications using oil supplements containing n-3 and n-6 fatty acids are reviewed. Their use in such disorders as renal disease, inflammatory and immune-related disorders, and dermatological conditions in dogs and cats is discussed. The influence of n-3 fatty acid-rich rations on […]

The (n-3) Fatty Acid Dose, Independent of the (n-6) to (n-3) Fatty Acid Ratio, Affects the Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Normal Dogs

Source: Jean A. Hall, Rebecca A. Picton, Monica M. Skinner, Dennis E. Jewell, and Rosemary C. Wander The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dose of (n-3) fatty acids (FA) administered, independent of the relative ratio of (n-6) to (n-3) FA in the food, influences plasma FA composition in dogs.Healthy female, geriatric […]

Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death by Dietary Pure w-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Dogs

Source: George E. Billman, PhD; Jing X. Kang, MD, PhD; and Alexander Leaf, MD Background—Rat diets high in fish oil have been shown to be protective against ischemia-induced fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Increasing evidence suggests that this may also apply to humans. To confirm the evidence in animals, we tested a concentrate of the free fish-oil […]

Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Ventricular Fibrillation by w3 Fatty Acids

Source: George E. Billman, Haifa Hallaq, and Alexander Leaf A specially prepared dog model of myocardial infarction was used to test the efficacy of the long-chain polyunsaturated fish oil 3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3) acids to prevent ischemiainduced malignant cardiac arrhythmias. The dogs had sustained a prior experimental myocardial infarction […]

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of Ventricular Fibrillation

Source: A Leaf Interest in the potential cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has been largely focused on possible antiatherothrombotic effects. In addition, however, definitive antiarrhythmic effects of these dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been reported by Charnock & McLennan. Our studies commenced with the observation that two of these fatty acids, […]

Nutritional Alterations and the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation in Dogs with Heart Failure

Source: LM Freeman, JE Rush, JJ Kehayias, JN Ross Jr, SN Meydani, DJ Brown, GG Dolnikowski, BN Marmor, ME White, CA Dinarello and R Roubenoff Alterations in body composition and nutritional status are common in humans with heart failure and are related, in part, to increases in cytokine concentrations. Cytokines have not been studied previously […]

N-3 Fatty Acids Specifically Modulate Catabolic Factors Involved in Articular Cartilage Degradation

Source: Clare L. Curtis, Clare E. Hughes, Carl R. Flannery, Chris B. Little, John L. Harwood, and Bruce Caterson This study describes specific molecular mechanisms by which supplementation with n-3 fatty acids (i.e. those present in fish oils) can modulate the expression and activity of degradative and inflammatory factors that cause cartilage destruction during arthritis. […]

N-3 Fatty Acids and Serum Lipoproteins: Animal Studies

Source: WS Harris This review examines the effects of n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in seven species of experimental animals. n-3 Fatty acids consistently lower serum triacylglycerol concentrations in humans but not in most animals. In addition, a common effect of n-3 fatty acids in animals is a marked reduction in […]

LCPUFAs Improve ERG Responses in Puppies

Source: KM Heinemann, MK Waldron, KE Bigley, GE Lees, and JE Bauer Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are essential for proper neural and retinal development in many mammalian species. A study investigated puppies born to dogs fed diets containing varying amounts of vegetable and marine omega-3 fatty acids during gestation/lactation. The fatty acid compositions of […]

Is There a Role for Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Canine Renal Disease?

Source: Scott A. Brown, Delmar R. Finco and Cathy A. Brown Dogs with spontaneous renal diseases frequently develop progressive uremia. After partial nephrectomy, a similar pattern of progressively declining renal function develops. This pattern may be attributed in part to the development of glomerular hypertension in remnant canine nephrons. Changes in the composition of dietary […]

Interventional Nutrition for Gastrointestinal Disease

Nutritional intervention plays a key role in the successful management of gastrointestinal disease. This article focuses on several novel areas of nutritional intervention that are becoming increasingly important in gastrointestinal disease, including short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine. Short-chain fatty acids are the principal end-products of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and […]

Food Supplement Containing Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Prevents Experimental Thrombotic Occlusion of Coronary Arteries in Dogs

Source: MV Pyzh, NA Gratsianskii, VL Golubykh, DV Borovinkov, and NV Barskaia The antithrombotic effect of fish oil (FO) cannot be explained by its action on platelets. FO may act on the activity of the fibrinolytic system. A food additive of the oil was studied for its effects on thrombosis and fibrinolysis in a canine […]

Evaluation of the Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Diets on the Inflammatory Stage of Wound Healing in Dogs

Source: MA Mooney, DM Vaughn, GA Reinhart, RD Powers, C Wright, CE Hoffman, SF Swaim, and HJ Baker To ascertain the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids on biochemical and histopathologic components of the inflammatory stage of wound healing. ANIMALS: 30 purpose-bred Beagles. PROCEDURE: Dogs were allotted to 5 groups of 6. Each group […]

Evaluation of the Effects of Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Pharmacokinetics of Doxorubicin in Dogs with Lymphoma

Source: Kim A. Selting, DVM, MS; Gregory K. Ogilvie, DVM; Daniel L. Gustafson, PhD; Michael E. Long, BS; Susan E. Lana, DVM, MS; Judy A. Walton; Rodney A. Hansen, PhD; A. Simon Turner, BVSc, MS; Irene Laible, BA; and Martin J. Fettman, DVM, PhD To determine the effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids on the […]

Eicosapentanoic Acid Reduces the Intimal Thickening of Autogenous Vein Grafts and Enhances Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor

Source: K Komori, T Ishii, T Odashiro, H Itoh, K Mawatari, K Okadome, and K Sugimachi The present study examined the effect of purified eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) on intimal thickening of an autogenous vein graft. In addition, experiments were performed to determine whether EPA supplementation would alter the endothelium-dependent responses of the reversed vein graft. […]

Effects of Supplementation with a Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Salmon Oil on Total Plasma and Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in the Cat

Source: Charles R. Filburn, PhD and David Griffin, MS, DVM Cats lack an adequate liver capacity to synthesize the longer-chain omega (n-6 and n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) that, upon release into the blood, are incorporated into membrane phospholipids in many tissues and serve essential structural and signaling functions. The necessity and importance of a […]

Effects of Low-Dose Marine Oils on Intimal Hyperplasia in Autologous Vein Grafts

Source: RW Landymore, MS Manku, M Tan, MA MacAulay, and B Sheridan The effects of low-dose cod-liver oil on intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts were examined in 45 adult mongrel dogs undergoing peripheral arterial reconstruction. Fifteen animals served as the control group, 15 animals were fed a fish-oil supplement containing 240 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid […]

Effects of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Early Renal Insufficiency in Dogs

Source: SA Brown, CA Brown, WA Crowell, JA Barsanti, CW Kang, T Allen, C Cowell, and DR Finco Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alters the course of experimental kidney disease in dogs. In particular, supplementation with omega-6 PUFAs hastens the decline of kidney function, and omega-3 PUFAs are renoprotective. We investigated the early […]

Effects of Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Versus Thromboxane Synthetase Inhibition on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicosis in Healthy Male Dogs

Source: GF Grauer, DS Greco, EN Behrend, J Fettman, I Mani, DM Getzy, and GA Reinhart To evaluate the protective effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation versus treatment with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (TXSI) in dogs given high-dose gentamicin. DESIGN: Clinicopathologic and renal histopathologic changes induced by gentamicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, IM, […]

Effect of Fish Oil, Arginine, and Doxorubicin Chemotherapy on Remission and Survival Time for Dogs with Lymphoma

Source: Gregory K. Ogilvie, Martin J. Fettman, Craig H. Mallinckrodt, Judy A. Walton, Rodney A. Hansen, Deborah J. Davenport, Kathy L. Gross, Kristi L. Richardson, Quinton Rogers, and Michael S. Hand BACKGROUND. Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids have been shown to inhibit the growth and metastasis of tumors. This double-blind, randomized study was designed to evaluate […]

Duration of Effects of Dietary Fish Oil Supplementation on Serum Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations in Dogs

Source: RA Hansen, GK Ogilvie, DJ Davenport, KL Gross, JA Walton, KL Richardson, CH Mallinckrodt, MS Hand, and MJ Fettman To determine how long serum concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids remain elevated after cessation of dietary fish oil supplementation. ANIMALS: 12 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURE: Baseline serum concentrations of linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), […]

Dietary Supplementation with (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Does Not Affect Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Labrador Retriever Dogs

Source: Andrew J. Irvine, Richard Butterwick, Timothy Watson, D. Joe Millward and Linda M. Morgan Obesity in dogs (>15% recommended body weight) is becoming increasingly common. It has been estimated to affect between 11 and 44% of the canine population, and has been linked to overfeeding and a sedentary lifestyle (1,2). There also appears to […]

Dietary Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size in a Canine Model of Ischemia and Reperfusion

Source: HJ Oskarsson, J Godwin, RM Gunnar, and JX Thomas Jr This study was conducted to determine whether the long-term administration of fish oil attenuates myocardial necrosis in an occlusion- reperfusion model of myocardial ischemia. BACKGROUND. Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil have various biologic properties that may modify myocardial injury caused by severe […]

Dietary Fish Oil and Ischaemic Arrhythmias

Source: RA Riemersma and CA Sargent Ventricular fibrillation (VF), a serious arrhythmia, is an important cause of death from ischaemic heart disease. There is substantial evidence that experimental diets with a high polyunsaturated (linoleic acid) to saturated fatty acid ratio offer protection against VF. In this article the effects of large amounts of dietary fish […]

Dietary Fish Oil Accelerates the Response to Coronary Thrombolysis with Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator

Dietary (n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma Fatty Acids and Leukotriene B Synthesis by Stimulated Neutrophils from Healthy Geriatric Beagles

Source: JA Hall, LR Henry, S Jha, MM Skinner, DE Jewell, and RC Wander The study objective was to determine the effect of feeding food enriched in (n-3) fatty acids (FA) on plasma FA profiles and leukotriene B (LTB) synthesis by stimulated peripheral blood neutrophils from dogs. For 36 weeks, two groups of dogs (n […]

Combined Treatment with Concentrated Essential Fatty Acids and Prednisolone in the Management of Canine Atopy

Source: R Bond and DH Lloyd Eleven perennially affected atopic dogs which had previously responded poorly to dietary supplementation with a combination of evening primrose oil and fish oil were studied to determine whether a concentrated essential fatty acid supplement containing gammalinolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid would reduce their prednisolone requirements. The prednisolone dose required […]

Canine Plasma and Erythrocyte Response to a Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Supplement: Characterization and Potential Benefits

Source: CR Filburn and D Griffin Results of this study confirm that dietary supplementation in dogs with a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids (salmon oil), with a docosahexaenoic acid:eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA:EPA) ratio of 1.5:1, increases plasma and red blood cell levels of these fatty acids. Supplementation with this DHA-enriched oil improves the long-chain polyunsaturated […]

Beneficial Effects of Chronic Administration of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Dogs with Renal Insufficiency

Source: SA Brown, CA Brown, A Crowell, JA Barsanti, T Allen, C Cowell, and DR Finco Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alters the course of experimental renal disease in rats. However, chronic renal disease in other laboratory animals and in human beings frequently responds differently to experimental manipulations. We investigated the effects of […]

Assessment of the Influence of Fatty Acids on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity and Myocellular Lipid Content by Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Cats

Source: Caroline Wilkins, MS; Robert C. Long Jr, PhD; Mark Waldron, PhD; Duncan C. Ferguson, VMD, PhD; and Margarethe Hoenig, Dr med vet, PhD To determine whether dietary fatty acids affect indicators of insulin sensitivity, plasma insulin and lipid concentrations, and lipid accumulation in muscle cells in lean and obese cats. Animals—28 neutered adult cats. […]

Amelioration of Ischemic Acute Renal Failure by Dietary Fish Oil Administration in Conscious Dogs

Source: HH Neumayer, M Heinrich, M Schmissas, H Haller, K Wagner, and FC Luft The hypothesis that dietary fish oil would protect dogs from ischemic acute renal failure was tested. Fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid, 55 mg/kg per day, and docosahexaenoic acid, 40 mg/kg per day was given to eight instrumented, female, beagle dogs for 6 […]

A Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Steroid Sparing Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Supplementation in the Treatment of Canine Atopic Dermatitis

Source: BK Saevik, K Bergvall, BR Holm, LE Saijonmaa-Koulumies, A Hedhammar, S Larsen, and F Kristensen A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial of 12 weeks’ duration was undertaken in 60 dogs with atopic dermatitis to evaluate the steroid sparing effect of essential fatty acid supplementation. The dogs were randomly assigned to receive either […]

A Double-Blind Comparison of Olive Oil and a Combination of Evening Primrose Oil and Fish Oil in the Management of Canine Atopy

Source: R Bond and DH Lloyd A randomised double-blind parallel study lasting eight weeks was used to assess the effects of olive oil in a group of atopic dogs whose clinical signs were well controlled by dietary supplementation with a combination of evening primrose oil and fish oil. Nine of the 11 dogs which continued […]

A Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Borage Seed Oil and Fish Oil in the Management of Canine Atopy

Source: RG Harvey Twenty-one dogs with atopy were entered into a blinded, placebo-controlled study lasting eight weeks. They were randomly divided into three groups and were all given supplementary oils orally once daily. The dogs in groups A and B were given borage seed oil and fish oil in combination (Viacutan; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) to […]