Maternal Dietary Lipids Alter Bone Chemical Composition, Mechanical Properties, and Histological Characteristics of Progeny of Japanese Quail

Source: D Liu, HP Veit, JH Wilson, and DM Denbow
This study evaluated the effects of maternal dietary lipids on chemical components and mechanical and histological properties of tibia in progeny of Japanese quail fed different dietary lipids. Laying hens were fed a basal diet containing either soybean oil (SBO), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), chicken fat (CF), or menhaden fish oil (FO) at 50 g/kg of the diet. The various maternal dietary lipid treatments did not affect growth of progeny at any developmental stage. There were no differences in tibial length, diameter, or collagen content. Tibial percentage ash was significantly higher in newly hatched progeny from hens fed the FO and HSBO diets. The levels of tibial deoxypyridinoline and total pyridinium crosslinks were higher in the FO and HSBO groups at hatch. At 7 d of age, the tibial deoxypyridinoline links remained higher in the FO group compared to the CF and SBO groups. Likewise, progeny from hens consuming the FO or HSBO diet had higher tibial shear force and stiffness at 7 and 14 d of age. There were no pronounced differences in tibial fracture energy and deflection among treatments. Maternal FO or HSBO enlarged the cartilaginous proliferative and hypertrophic zones of the tibial proximal end in newly hatched quail, which was accompanied by a thicker cortical bone in the diaphysis. However, the width of the hypertrophic zones tended to be smaller in these two groups coupled with improvement in trabecular density and cortical thickness in the proximal end and cortical density in the diaphysis at 3 wk of age. These results suggest that maternal dietary lipids altered bone development by influencing organic matrix quality and mineralization in embryos.